AN ALL-INCLUSIVE GUIDE TO GRAPESEED OIL
- Grapeseed Carrier Oil, or Grape Oil as it is sometimes called, is extracted from the seeds of the Vitis vinifera botanical, which is typically cultivated to produce wine grapes.
- Although they are often discarded, the seeds are said to be the part of the grape that is most conducive to health.
- Grapeseed Carrier Oil tightens and tones the skin, protects against sun damage, and reduces the appearance of blemishes, wrinkles, and stretch marks.
- Used on skin, Grapeseed Oil cleanses the pores and balances oil production, thereby reducing future acne breakouts.
- Used in hair, Grapeseed Carrier Oil contributes to its softness and smoothness while promoting its growth.
- Used medicinally, Grapeseed Carrier Oil boosts circulation and reduces the appearance of varicose veins and cellulite while soothing tired muscles and boosting immunity.
HISTORY OF GRAPESEED OIL
Grapeseed Oil, or Grape Oil as it is sometimes called, is extracted from the seeds of the Vitis vinifera botanical, which is typically cultivated to produce wine grapes, although sometimes non-alcoholic grape juice can also be produced. Generally, however, the seeds and seed oil are a byproduct of the winemaking process. Though often discarded, the seeds are said to be the part of the grape that is most conducive to health.
The grapevine is endemic to the Mediterranean region as well as Asia, and it is believed that the Greeks were the first to consume grapes for their numerous health benefits. Ancient medical writings have revealed that the health benefits of grapes were recorded by Greek philosophers. Grapeseed Oil has existed and been in use for more than 6000 years, and the use of grapes in food and drink had been propagated throughout the Mediterranean region even before the Bible was written. According to the Bible, the oil was used in a dish called Pulse, which the Prophet Daniel is said to have eaten for its health-enhancing properties, which points to the fact that even then, people were aware of the health benefits offered by Grapeseed Oil.
According to other historical sources, the medical practitioners of Ancient Europe used various parts of the grape as well as the extracts from its seeds and vines in medicinal applications, especially to create ointments that would treat ailments of the skin and the eyes. The leaves were used as bandages to help stop the flow of blood in wounds and to soothe inflammation associated with hemorrhoids. Unripe grapes were eaten to relieve constipation and the discomfort of over-eating. Overly ripe grapes were used to address nausea and skin diseases such as smallpox. Dried grapes are better known as raisins, which naturally relieved constipation and liver problems.
In Ayurvedic medicine, grapes are referred to as “Drakshaa Phalottamaa,” meaning that they are the most superior of all fruits, thus they are included in various Ayurvedic medications intended to treat memory loss, fatigue, depression, hypertension, diarrhea, indigestion, and bloating, among other health issues. Other approaches to alternative medicine also recommend the use of grapes and grape extracts to treat sore throats, to enhance the voice, to ease nausea, to soothe skin problems, and to boost libido with its aphrodisiac properties, to name a few ailments for which they are recommended.
Eventually, grapevines were introduced to Europe, and in 1569 Emperor Maximilian II of Italy granted a musician the monopoly of pressing Grapeseed Oil to preserve his musical instruments. This early pressing process involved mixing grape seeds and water inside large vats and covering them for a few days, after which time they would be pounded every few days until they yielded a mash. A gentle heat was applied to the mash to separate the oils from the water.
Grapevines were eventually introduced to North America, and grapes are now cultivated internationally, making them one of the most popular fruits in the world and resulting in the immense production of Grapeseed oil from a multitude of suppliers. In the 20th century, Grapeseed Oil began attracting the attention of scientists and gained popularity as an oil used in culinary preparations, but it continues to be used in cosmetics, soaps, and medicinal applications. *NDA Carrier Oils are not intended for internal use or consumption.
BENEFITS OF USING GRAPESEED OIL
The main chemical constituents of Grapeseed Carrier Oil are: Linoleic Acid, Oleic Acid, Palmitic Acid, Stearic Acid, Palmitoleic Acid, Vitamin E, and beta-Carotene.
LINOLEIC ACIDS (OMEGA 6) are known to:
- Moisturize hair and promote its growth
- Facilitate wound healing
- Be an effective emulsifier in the formulation of soaps and quick-drying oils
- Exhibit anti-inflammatory properties
- Soothe acne and reduce chances of future outbreaks
- Promote moisture retention in skin and hair
- Make oils feel thinner in consistency when used in an oil blend, thus being beneficial for use on acne-prone skin
OLEIC ACIDS (OMEGA 9) are known to:
- Maintain the softness, suppleness, and radiance of skin and hair
- Stimulate the growth of thicker, longer, and stronger hair
- Reduce the appearance of aging, such as premature wrinkles and fine lines
- Eliminate dandruff and thereby support hair growth
- Boost immunity
- Exhibit anti-oxidant properties
- Prevent joint inflammation, stiffness, and pain
PALMITIC ACID is known to:
- Have emollient properties
- Soften hair without leaving a greasy or sticky residue
- Be the most common saturated fatty acid
STEARIC ACID is known to:
- Have cleansing properties that purge dirt, sweat, and excess sebum from hair and skin
- Be an ideal emulsifying agent that binds water and oil
- Help products remain potent when stored for long periods of time
- Condition and protect hair from damage without diminishing luster or making it feel heavy
- Have exceptional cleansing properties
- Soften skin
PALMITOLEIC ACID is known to:
- Delay the appearance of premature aging
- Moisturize and tighten the skin
- Promote the growth of shiny hair
- Enhance the brightness of the complexion
- Boost the growth of healthy-looking nails
- Enhance skin elasticity to prevent symptoms of premature aging, such as wrinkles
VITAMIN E is known to:
- Have antioxidant properties that slow the look of aging and boost circulation
- Repair scarred and blemished skin
- Prevent moisture loss from skin and hair
- Offer soothing relief to skin that has been burned
- Deeply cleanse pores and balance oil production
BETA-CAROTENE is known to:
- Exhibit antioxidant properties
- Contribute a red-orange pigment to the oil’s color
- Soothe acne and burns
- Reduce the appearance of age spots
- Tighten skin
- Slow the look of aging
Used topically, Grapeseed Carrier Oil absorbs easily into the skin to deliver intense moisture without irritating skin, leaving an oily residue, or clogging pores. This makes it ideal for skin types that are oily, sensitive, and mature as well as skin afflicted with acne and eczema. It is commonly found in cosmetic products such as face creams, lip balms, and sunscreens, as its antiseptic and astringent properties help to repair skin. Rich in compounds that restore collagen, Grapeseed Carrier Oil slows the look of aging by smoothing and firming the skin, offering protection against sun damage, and reducing the appearance of blemishes, wrinkles, and stretch marks. Used as a skin toner, Grapeseed Oil cleanses while balancing oil production, thereby reducing future breakouts on acne-prone skin.
Used in hair, Grapeseed Carrier Oil contributes to its softness and smoothness while promoting is growth. Its conditioning properties moisturize dry, frizzy, damaged, and brittle hair without leaving hair smelling unpleasant or feeling heavy and greasy. By eliminating dandruff, it strengthens hair and reduces hair loss, enhancing the growth of healthier and possibly longer hair.
Used medicinally, Grapeseed Carrier Oil boosts circulation and reduces the appearance of varicose veins, spider veins, and cellulite. Used in a massage, it can soothe tired muscles, and its anti-inflammatory activity can relieve the pain and swelling associated with arthritis. Its Vitamin E content boosts immunity and improves numerous body systems as well as the body’s ability to heal wounds by eliminating harmful bacteria.
As illustrated, Grapeseed Carrier Oil is reputed to have many therapeutic properties. The following highlights its many benefits and the kinds of activity it is believed to show:
- COSMETIC: Antioxidant, Emollient, Astringent, Antibacterial.
- MEDICINAL: Cicatrisant, Diuretic, Tonic, Anti-inflammatory, Adaptogenic, Anti-allergic, Anti-histamine, Anti-dandruff, Stimulant, Antimicrobial, Aphrodisiac, Antiviral
CULTIVATING AND HARVESTING QUALITY GRAPESEED OIL
Grapevines can be found growing in most of North America, South America, Europe, the Balkans, Asia, Mediterranean and South Africa, South Australia, and New Zealand. They thrive in temperate climates with warm, dry summers and mild winters, as humidity and prolonged exposure to cold temperatures cause disease and death, respectively. Grapevines will not survive in tropical climates, as they must undergo the normal cycle of latency in the winter. Aside from these restrictions, Grapevines can adapt to a vast range of soil types from light sand to packed clay, as long as the soil has adequate drainage.
The grapevine is a perennial, woody vine with stems that can grow up to 35 m long. It has a lobed leaf type with 4 or 5 lobes. Its thin, smooth leaves are circular or ovate in shape but jagged around the edges. Opposite to these leaves, flowers grow in abundant clusters. Its fruits are small berries that we know as grapes, which can grow in varying shapes including spherical and oblong shapes. Grape colors can also range from green to red to a deep violet.
Each grape is made up of a Petiole, which is the thin stalk that connects the leaf to the stem of the vine and a thin, colored Skin that envelopes the inner Pulp, which is the main fruit that holds the juice. Each grape contains up to 4 seeds.
Over 90% of grape production, including grapes grown for raisins, table use, and wine, is of the Vinifera variety. The pulp of this variety of grape, though not juicy, is consistently tender and its skin is firmly attached. Its seeds are easy to remove and it is high in acidity but low in sugar. Vinifera vines grow on strong, stout trunks that can bear heavy loads of ripe grapes, whereas other varieties have lean stalks that require the support of trellises.
Grapevines could potentially grow from grape seeds, but the seeds do not develop precisely like either of the parents, due to variables in pollination. Thus, a Chardonnay grape, for example, would not necessarily grow into a Chardonnay vine. To illustrate, wine grapevines have hermaphroditic flowers – that is both male and female flowers, which is also referred to as having “perfect flowers” – but the blossoms of one grapevine could be pollinated with the pollen of a different vine with help from the wind or insects, and this pollen could potentially be of a different variety. Therefore, even if a grape can carry and share the hereditary material of each of its “parents” while also exerting its own properties, no grape seed will remain exactly like its original variety.
There are two ways of propagating grapevines: Layering and Re-planting.
Layering involves the use of the grapevine cane, which is a tender, year-old shoot that is fundamental to the spreading of the vine and to the formation of grape clusters as well as leaves for one season. At the one-year mark, the cane develops a bark and sheds all or most of its leaves. In the layering method, a section of the cane that is still attached to the mother vine is buried with the tip exposed. It eventually takes root over a season and can be separated to develop other plants. This method is commonly used by vineyardists to fill in any gaps in rows of vines afflicted by the disease.
Re-planting or “transplanting” involves cutting the cane, rooting it, then uprooting it carefully to ensure that the roots are still as long as possible, and finally relocating it to another spot to be planted.
Both of these methods indicate that almost all grapevines that are cultivated are duplicates of the contributing parent plant.
The Vitis vinifera grapevine has been cultivated with carefully selected traits such as resistance to disease, ripening time (early or late), vigor, fruit-bearing capacity, berry size, skin color and thickness, and cluster size, making it highly bred over the centuries.
Grapes are most commonly harvested by hand.
HOW IS GRAPESEED OIL EXTRACTED?
After the fruit has been wet or dry processed, the seeds are quickly removed and dried to ensure a resulting oil that has a low acid value. The wet process involves running the wine pomace – the skins, pulp, seeds, and stems of the grape – through spinning cylinders with a 3mm screen to remove the grape pulp. The seeds are then dried in rotary driers before being cleaned and preserved. Alternatively, the dry process involves drying the grape pomace before extracting the seeds.
Grapeseed Oil can be extracted through the Cold-pressing method or through Solvent Extraction.
Cold-pressing involves first crushing the seeds in an expeller press to separate the seed oil from the seed extracts, which can be turned into wine or juice. After the oil has been completely extracted, it is set aside in a container and allowed to settle for 24 hours. This crude oil ranges in color from yellow to yellowish green and has a subtle characteristic scent. Cold-pressed Grapeseed Carrier oils retain their natural aroma and health benefits. For Refined Grapeseed Carrier Oil, it would next undergo a process of refinement that would neutralize the oil, bleach it with activated carbon and clay, and deodorize it. Cold-pressed Grapeseed Carrier oils are rare, due to the challenge of pressing the seeds without solvents.
In the Solvent Extraction method, the grape seeds are introduced to food grade solvents that draw the oils out of the grape seeds, as the seeds alone yield a small amount of oil, thus requiring chemical assistance; however, this method often involves applying high pressure and subsequently high heat to the oil, which alters its molecular composition.
To produce one 237 ml (8 fl. oz.) bottle of Grapeseed Oil, 1 ton of grapes is required. The finished oil is a light yellowish-green in color. Grapeseed Carrier Oil is known to have a light, nutty aroma with a hint of sweetness. It is thin in consistency and leaves a glossy finish on the skin.
USES OF GRAPESEED OIL
The uses of Grapeseed Carrier Oil Carrier Oil are abundant, ranging from medicinal to cosmetic. Its many forms include oils, gels, lotions, creams, soaps, shampoos, conditioners, and lip balms.
Used topically, Grapeseed Oil softens and repairs the skin while effectively reducing the appearance of scars and blemishes. To soothe acne and sunburns, simply pour a few drops of the oil onto the palms, rub them together, and massage it into the affected skin in an upward direction until it is fully absorbed. A few drops of Grapeseed Carrier Oil can be massaged into the skin after shaving, as its astringent and antiseptic qualities help to nourish, tighten, and repair skin. It can be added to cosmetic products such as lip balms, creams, moisturizers, sunblocks, and lotions to delay the appearance of aging skin with its antioxidant properties. Grapeseed Oil makes an effective makeup remover, especially for eye makeup. To cleanse the makeup such as eyeliner, eyeshadow, and mascara, pour a few drops of the oil onto a cotton bud and gently wipe it across the eyelids and lashes.
Used in a massage, Grapeseed Oil’s light consistency makes it easily absorbed by the skin. It works to reduce the appearance of age spots, wrinkles, saggy skin, and stretch marks. It is recommended for soothing stiffness in muscles and skin affected by sunburns. It relieves discomfort associated with rheumatoid arthritis and high blood pressure. To tighten and tone the skin, blend 5 drops of Grapeseed Carrier Oil with 1 drop of Bergamot Oil and 1 drop of Lavender Oil before applying it in a massage. Skin will feel not only moisturized, but also rejuvenated and nourished.
Used in hair, Grapeseed Carrier Oil treats scalp dryness and itchiness. To eliminate dandruff and frizz while reducing hair loss, mix 10 drops of Grapeseed Carrier Oil with 2 drops of Lime Essential Oil and gently massage it into the scalp to condition the hair and enhance its softness and smoothness. Alternatively, Grapeseed Oil can be used on its own by coating the hair with it and leaving it on for 10 minutes before rinsing it out with cold water. Regular application of the oil will leave hair looking and feeling healthier.
Used medicinally, Grapeseed Oil facilitates the healing of dermal wounds by reducing inflammation, boosting circulation, and expelling toxins. It also reduces water retention by promoting urination and sweating. To soothe the look and feel of bruised skin and to support recovery from an injury or surgery, blend 10 drops of Grapeseed oil with 2 drops of Petitgrain oil and massage it into the affected areas. Grapeseed Carrier Oil is believed to support and improve cognitive function, enhance memory, and prevent memory loss. For a cognition-enhancing head massage, blend 90 ml (3 fl. oz.) of Grapeseed Oil with 7 drops of Rosemary Oil before gently massaging it into the scalp.
A GUIDE TO GRAPESEED OIL VARIETIES & THEIR BENEFITS
|GRAPESEED VARIETY & BOTANICAL NAME||COUNTRY OF ORIGIN||BENEFITS OF OIL|
|Grapeseed Carrier Oil
|Grapeseed Organic Carrier Oil
CONTRAINDICATIONS FOR GRAPESEED OIL
As with all other New Directions Aromatics products, carrier oils are for external use only. Grapeseed Carrier Oil should not be ingested, and should not be used on or near children, in case of accidental ingestion. As with all other oils, a patch test should be conducted on the inner arm using a dime size amount of Grapeseed Oil to check for sensitivities. An absence of an allergic response within 48 hours indicates that the oil is safe to use. Individuals with allergies to grapes are at a higher risk of developing an allergy to Grapeseed Carrier Oil and should avoid its use.
Potentially severe side effects of using Grapeseed Carrier Oil may include itchiness, rashes, hives, swelling of the face and mouth, sore throat, difficulty in breathing, headaches, tightness in the chest, elevated blood pressure, and dizziness. In the event of an allergic reaction, discontinue use of the product and see a doctor, pharmacist, or allergist immediately for a health assessment and appropriate remedial action.
Individuals taking blood thinners or medication to lower cholesterol or blood pressure may experience a drug interaction that could possibly involve experiencing nausea and diarrhea due to its laxative properties. Furthermore, using Grapeseed Carrier Oil while on blood thinners may increase the change of bleeding complications. To prevent these side effects, consult with a medical professional prior to use.
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